The driver essentially sits alone in the vehicle, although he can communicate with the rest of the crew via the intercom system, or through openings in the turret ring. The driver's primary job is simple, but still difficult to master.... move the vehicle at the command of the TC. However, "tactical" driving is a skill which takes time and experience to develop. The driver must use cover and concealment when moving, and sometimes he can see this better than the commander. This is aided by the boosted driving controls, such as the "T" bar for steering and the automatic transmission (2 forward, and one reverse gear). Furthermore, he must master the ability to stop the tank smoothly but quickly to allow the gunner to engage targets, since it was rare to engage targets on the move in the M-60 series. This technique is known as the "short halt" and requires the driver to slip the vehicle into neutral and allow the inertia of the tank's 56 tons to bring it to a smooth stop. Once stopped, he has to apply the brake, or the tank will roll backwards when the gun is fired! The driver often has to move at the guidance of others (called "ground guides"), and because they cannot always see where they are going, they sometimes hit various objects which they later wished they had avoided....such as sign posts, cars, and even trees and buildings.
The loader is the low man on the totem pole. He has several jobs, among them loading the main gun, loading the coax machine gun, and acting as rear air guard while the vehicle is moving. Main gun ammunition is stowed in four locations: the ready rack at the foot of the loader, located between the main gun and the left side of the turret; the turret bustle rack, located behind the loader at torso level in the back of the turret; two hull racks on either side of the driver. Ammunition kept in the hull racks was taken out between engagements to reload the bustle and ready racks. During a tank battle, ammo is first taken from the ready rack, picked up and then set into the open breech of the gun. The loader then shoves the round forward with the heel of his hand, keeping his fingers curled to prevent them from being caught (and severed) by the breech as it came up to close. When operating the coax machine gun, the loader has to squeeze himself between the main gun and the ready rack on the floor so as to reach the machine gun. As for machine gun ammunition, there are three primary places for stowage. The coax 7.62mm rounds are stored in a large capacity box along the left turret wall, which fed the machine gun directly. Additional coax ammo is in "banana boxes" on the floor (so named because of their shape). The TC's .50 cal. ammo is stored in a curved bay around the cupola, feeding the M-85, while extra ammo is also in the banana boxes.
A few notes about the photos.... top photo: most driver controls can be seen in this and the photo below. The brake pedal is the small one on the left, while the acclerator is the large one in the middle. The "T" bar for steering is just to the right of the driver's left eye. The shift lever is obvious. To the right are the gauges for oil level and pressure and fuel levels.
Lower photo: the silver bar at the top is the slide of the hatch, while the object to the far left is one of the APDS rounds in the ready rack. The commo box can be seen on the far right. The light spot in the background is light coming through one of the prism blocks used when driving "buttoned up." If you look carefully, you can see the headlight guard through the block!
A few notes about the photo (right).... this driver is wearing the CVC helmet without the hardened plastic shell. Although somewhat more comfortable, this practice was frowned upon since the foam liner provided insufficient protection from head injuries. The large object with the ring at the bottom is one of the tank's tow cables. Tow cables had to be greased and then wrapped in duct tape ("mile a minute" tape) to keep them from rusting.
A few notes about the photo.... the loader is holding an APDS (Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot) round. The open breech of the main gun can be seen to the upper right. Above the loader's head is a small box with spare light bulbs, while in the loader's upper left pocket is the ever present and necessary C-ration plastic spoon!!